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Knowledge

CBD - Short for Cannabidiol


Cannabidiol - is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC


Cannabis - Cannabis is also known as marijuana, grass, pot, dope, Mary Jane, hooch, weed, hash, joints, brew, reefers, cones, smoke, mull, buddha, ganga, hydro, yarndi, heads and green.


THC - Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis. THC is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. With chemical name, (−)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol, the term THC also refers to cannabinoid isomers.


Cannabinoid - any of a group of closely related compounds that include cannabinol and the active constituents of cannabis.


Cannabinol - a natural component of industrial cannabis or hemp.


Hemp - refers to the industrial, non-intoxicating varieties harvested primarily for fiber, seeds, and CBD. However, this was originally named Cannabis sativa.


Indica - Is a cannabis strain.  Indica strains are believed to be physically sedating, perfect for relaxing with a movie or as a nightcap before bed.


Sativa - is a cannabis strain.  Sativas tend to provide more invigorating, uplifting cerebral effects that pair well with physical activity, social gatherings, and creative projects.


Hemp Oil - Low in CBDs.  Is a hemp extract taken from the seeds of the plant. While this type of oil can be extracted from all plants in the cannabis genus, industrial hemp is the only plant used for hemp oil. This type of hemp is specifically produced industrially and the amount of psychoactive substances that are contained in it is minimal.  


CBD oil - High in CBDs.  Is the short form of the term cannabidiol oil. CBD oil is cannabis oil that has a significant content of cannabidiol. It is made from the flowers, leaves and stalks of hemp and not from its seeds like hemp oil.  CBD oil is usually extracted from industrial hemp. CBD does not affect the same receptors as THC. The human body has an endocannabinoid system (ECS) that receives and translates signals from cannabinoids. It produces some cannabinoids of its own, which are called endocannabinoids.


Hemp vs. Marijuana - They are cousins in the plant world, but marijuana has a much higher THC content than hemp. Hemp oil contains low levels of CBD – typically less than 25 parts per million – while CBD oil can be up to 15% CBD. Because the plants are related, some unscrupulous sellers of hemp oil are trying to market it for its medicinal value, which is negligible.


Endocannabinoid system - (ECS) is a vital molecular system for helping maintain homeostasis.


Homeostasis is the ability or tendency to maintain internal stability in an organism to compensate for environmental changes.


Cannabinoid receptors are present throughout the body, embedded in cell membranes, and are believed to be more numerous than any other receptor system.


Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that target cannabinoid receptors, such as CB1 and CB2.  Endocannabinoids are the substances our bodies naturally make to stimulate cannabinoid receptors.


Phytocannabinoids are plant substances that stimulate cannabinoid receptors. Phytocannabinoids consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L, the cannabis plant with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids


The three key components of the ECS are:

  • Cannabinoid receptors found on the surface of cells
  • Endocannabinoids, small molecules that activate cannabinoid receptors
  • Metabolic enzymes that break down endocannabinoids after they are used

 

Cannabinoid Receptors

Cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and “listen” to conditions outside the cell. They transmit information about changing conditions to the inside of the cell, kick-starting the appropriate cellular response.

There are two major cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. These aren’t the only cannabinoid receptors, but they were the first ones discovered and remain the best-studied. CB1 receptors are one of the most abundant receptor types in the brain. These are the receptors that interact with THC to get people high. CB2 receptors are more abundant outside of the nervous system, in places like the immune system. However, both receptors can be found throughout the body.

Endocannabinoids

Endocannabinoids are molecules that, like the plant cannabinoid THC, bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors. However, unlike THC, endocannabinoids are produced naturally by cells in the human body (“endo” means “within,” as in within the body).

There are two major endocannabinoids: anandamide and 2-AG (Figure 2). These endocannabinoids are made from fat-like molecules within cell membranes, and are synthesized on-demand. This means that they get made and used exactly when they’re needed, rather than packaged and stored for later use like many other biological molecules.

Metabolic Enzymes

The third piece of the endocannabinoid triad includes the metabolic enzymes that quickly destroy endocannabinoids once they are used. The two big enzymes are FAAH, which breaks down anandamide, and MAGL, which breaks down 2-AG (Figure 3). These enzymes ensure that endocannabinoids get used when they’re needed, but not for longer than necessary. This distinguishes endocannabinoids from many other molecular signals in the body, such as hormones or classical neurotransmitters, which can persist for many seconds or minutes, or get packaged and stored for later use.